Supplementing water used in the various setting through rainwater harvesting including agriculture, household and domestic use, commercial and industrial uses is important. The mainly practiced rainwater harvesting is the rooftop water collection for various uses where water is collected in tanks. Rainwater harvesting is important as it helps collect water for later use mostly when there is scarcity as well as enhancing one’s self-sufficiency. Rainwater harvesting helps reduce the cost of purchasing water for various uses as well as promoting environmental conservation. Harvesting of rainwater from a rooftop is made possible by use of gutters which collects the water as discharges it in a collection point.
Collecting rainwater is mostly done into rainwater tanks which can be made of different materials. Rainwater tanks can be made of plastic, concrete, fiberglass, aluminum metal, and stainless steel which should be resistant to rust and other chemical reaction. Factors affecting the choice of a rainwater tank includes affordabilitily as well as the durability. Plastics tanks are highly preferred to other types of tanks, but they are less durable as compared to concrete water tanks. Tanks used in rainwater harvesting are either placed on the ground surface or can be placed underground. It is a little hard to fit underground rainwater tanks with taps or valve, so water has to be pumped from the tanks so as to use it.
Covering of the rainwater tanks is important leaving only the entry point for the water pipe so as to avoid entry of unwanted materials into the rainwater tank such as leaves or even animals. Plastic rainwater tanks are used in many places since they come in different sizes, and volume and also one can find them almost everywhere. Plastic rainwater tanks should be placed on a concrete surface so as to avoid algae growth. Plastics rainwater tanks have reduced durability when exposed to solar radiation hence should be placed where there is no direct solar. Other materials using in making rainwater tanks have their shortcoming mostly in releasing contaminants to the harvested water hence safety precaution measures should be put in place to minimize contamination.
Sterilization of harvested rainwater is important to make it safe for human consumption. This is because there are so many contaminants that settle on the rooftop and ones it rains they usually find themselves into the water. Some techniques for removing contaminants from the rainwater to make it safe for drinking is by chlorination as well as filtration. The most used method in sterilizing water is chlorination since it is quite effective and also affordable. It is also advisable to ensure that when collecting rainwater, the first time it rains water should not be collected into the rainwater tanks since they have high loads of contaminants.